The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition

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At the end of training, the performance of the network closely resembled that of adult readers: 1. There are about 125 million rods, and they are concentrated in the outer regions of the retina. So Freud prevented his theory from being disconfirmed. FIGURE 5.3 Effects of attention condition (divided vs. focused) and of type of non-target on target detection. The other option is to be clearer about how these structures are acquired (see Chapter 14).

Language Processing (Studies in Cognition)

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Indeed, Byrne et al. (1999) have shown that combined additional and antecedent premises can suppress all of four inferences. Although these after-images are not the same as visual images, they have this same quality of rapidly fading after they first appear. In addition, the evidence generally confirms the value of the distinction between perceptual and conceptual processes. Donald Meichenbaum, PhD, Melissa Institute for Violence Prevention and Treatment, Miami Marina Iniesta Sepúlveda, PhD, Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia, Spain

Handbook of Intelligence: Evolutionary Theory, Historical

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Anytime the word "seems" appears in an assessment, it should be a red flag that the assessors do not know what they are looking for. The former category consisted of failures to discriminate between objects (e.g., mistaking shaving cream for toothpaste), and the latter category consisted of inappropriate combinations of actions (e.g., Reason, 1979, p. 72): “I unwrapped a sweet, put the paper in my mouth, and threw the sweet into the waste bucket.” It would be unwise to attach much significance to the percentages of the various kinds of action slips.

Developmental Perspectives on Teaching and Learning Thinking

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This precludes a full-scale direct attack. The general's plan is to divide his army, send a small group down each road, and converge on the fortress. The traditional view of rationality is based upon abstract, content-independent rules for behavior. The question of maturation versus learning is an age old debate - but today most psychologists believe that maturation and learning influence cognitive ability. Koriat and Goldsmith (1996) argued that traditional memory research is based on the storehouse metaphor.

The Adolescent as Decision-Maker: Applications to

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In the first stage, participants were presented with weakly associated word pairs (e.g., “black-ENGINE”) and instructed to learn the second word. Topics include early concepts of abnormal behavior; affective disorders, anxiety disorders, psychosis, and personality disorders; the nature and effectiveness of traditional and modern methods of psychotherapy; and viewpoints of major psychologists past and present. Improving Memory - Tips to help you remember...you know... that thing you forgot.

Creating Consilience: Integrating the Sciences and the

Edward Slingerland

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The neuroscience research that is conducted helps us understand sensory experiences, states of consciousness, motivation and emotion, development through the life span, and physical and psychological health. The perceived source of light was determined with reference to head position rather than gravity, indicating that the location of the sun is not relevant to decisions about the direction of illumination. Researchers: Zuzana Štěrbová, Charles University& Northumbria University, Jaroslava Varella Valentova, Charles University, Petr Weiss, Charles University, & Tamsin Saxton, Northumbria University Online Relationship Study for Cohabiting Couples (04/21/15)(email for link).

Secondary Selection Portfolio: Verbal Reasoning Practice

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Kuhn proposes more research on the actual application of metacognition in the process of acquiring new knowledge. The SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review) technique can be used for learning complex, integrated material. When the person doing the task was the annoying person, the participant gave more shocks ('retaliation') than did the control. FIGURE 6.11 Mean proportion of words recognised as a function of orienting task (semantic or rhyme) and of the type of recognition task (standard or rhyming).

Connectionism and Meaning: From Truth Conditions to Weight

Stuart A Jackson

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The participants were equipped with badges containing buttons. However, it is important to note that basic-level concepts do not always correspond to intermediate terms (e.g., chair in furniture-chair-armchair). The Applied Cognitive Psychology Program utilizes resources from The Claremont Colleges Consortium. They prepared a video-tape of someone repeating “ba” over and over again. Thus, we cannot simply argue that KF had impaired short-term memory. These image files can represent a whole object or various parts of an object.

Unstable Ideas: Temperament, Cognition, and Self

Jerome Kagan

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These skills were certainly simple ones, sensorimotor skills, but they directed the way in which the infant explored his or her environment and so how they gained more knowledge of the world and more sophisticated exploratory skills. Failures to withhold responses to the digit 3 are regarded as action slips. FOCUSED AUDITORY ATTENTION The British scientist Colin Cherry was working in an electronics research laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but became involved in psychological research.

The Conscious Universe

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The effects of the various concurrent tasks were similar on stronger and weaker players, suggesting that both groups use the working memory system in the same way. The software will likely perform a cluster analysis and reveal statistical groupings, but it is unlikely to record what the user said at a given moment, why groupings were made, or what groupings were perhaps created initially and then changed later. For example, if you want to determine the attributes of a given individual you TABLE 10.2 The attributes used to characterise the individual members of two gangs, the Jets and Sharks, from McClelland (1981) Person _Art _Al _Sam _Clyde _Mike _Jim _Greg Name Art Al Sam Clyde Mike Jim Greg Age 40s 30s 20s 40s 30s 20s 20s Education junior high junior high college junior high junior high junior high high school Marital status single married single single single divorced married Job pusher burglar bookie bookie bookie burglar pusher Gang Jets Jets Jets Jets Jets Jets Jets The attributes used to characterise the individual members of two gangs, the Jets and Sharks, from McClelland (1981) Person _John _Doug _Lance _George _Pete _Fred _Gene _Ralph _Phil _lke _Nick _Don _Ned _Karl _Ken _Earl _Rick _Ol _Neal _Dave Name John Doug Lance George Pete Fred Gene Ralph Phil Ike Nick Don Ned Karl Ken Earl Rick Ol Neal Dave Age 20s 30s 20s 20s 20s 20s 20s 30s 30s 30s 30s 30s 30s 40s 20s 40s 30s 30s 30s 30s Education junior high high school junior high junior high high school high school college junior high college junior high high school college college high school high school high school high school college high school high school Marital status married single married divorced single single single single married single single married married married single married divorced married single divorced Job burglar bookie burglar burglar bookie pusher pusher pusher pusher bookie pusher burglar bookie bookie burglar burglar burglar pusher bookie pusher Gang Jets Jets Jets Jets Jets Jets Jets Jets Sharks Sharks Sharks Sharks Sharks Sharks Sharks Sharks Sharks Sharks Sharks Sharks can “clamp” a particular person-node (e.g., _Art); clamping is a term used to mean that you keep the activation in this node at a constant level on each cycle—you fix its activation at a given level so it does not change.